Margiana/ Margush

Visitors of Turkmenistan can freely join to the history of the ruins of the Ancient Merv, found in the town of Bayramali. It is located 25 km east of the Velayat center of Mary in Turkmenistan. Merv is not just an ancient city, but has a great historical features to the Murghab River, found in the mountains of Paropamiz and on the border of the Karakum desert.

Murgab River which is situated in 70 km north of the ruins of the Merv, found in the second millennium BC, was one of the most ancient centers of world civilization and called Margush. Since, there is no detailed information about this territory. Actually it was connected with water artery as the Murgab river. Margush is the oldest town, belonging to the famous Behistun inscription of the Achaemenid king Darius I.

Archaeological research explored it in the second millennium BC. The center moved from the agricultural path of the Prikopetdag plain of South Murghab to the lush valleys of Bactria, the southwestern parts of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and the southeastern lands of Turkmenistan. It is situated on the territory of Margiana and adjacent Bactria in the Bronze Age as well as in areas of the ancient Eastern world. Presence a rational continuance of the civilizations of the structure culture of the Eneolithic of the foothills of Kopetdag, the Bactro-Margian monuments prove established architectural works founded in harmony with all the instructions of building art. This offers robust influences approving of the theory of the presence of an independent architectural school in ancient period of time in the south of Turkmenistan. This amazing fortress is decorated with towers of a four-sided or rotund form. Based on the unique mosaic decor, it can be assumed that the traditions of architectural mosaics of the medieval masters of Khorasan originate in the Artistic Culture of Ancient Margiana, which in the Bronze Agewas was the center of ancient eastern civilization along with Egypt, Harappa, Mesopotamia and China. It is believed that the settlement of Margush-Gonur that was the capital of the country ceased to exist at the beginning of the first millennium BC. Due to the recordings of the medieval author Ibn-Fakih Hamad-ni, one of the many legends tells that Merv was built by Alexander the Great, and the stronghold in it was the legendary King Tahmuras. He was unusually wise and taught his people to weave yarn from sheep’s wool, sew clothes and weave carpets. In addition to this, there is also a mention by the ancient author Quintus Rufius that the Greco-Macedonian leader founded the city in the center of Margiana. But over time, it became clear that Alexander the Great known in the East under the name Iskender Zulkarnayn did not build a new city here, but only strengthened the walls of the existing one. But the heyday of the city passed away at the time of the inclusion of Margiana in the Parthian state, when the city was located at crossroads of the Great Silk Road.

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