In this tour to Old Urgench that is situated in Turkmenistan, you will learn that in the Middle Ages this area was full of excellent scientists and healers, philosophers and poets, artists and builders, potters, wood carvers and masons. It was here when there was the capital of the Khorezm region, known for its architectural school. And the trends of that environment and the school of Kone Urgench had a huge influence over the wider region to the south and southwest. The fashion for new art and design ideas for the architecture of Central Asia and the Caucasus did not stop even after the Mongol invasion in the 13th century. Masters managed to save not only the genetic code, but also knowledge in combination with skills. With the help of masters, the city was restored; moreover, the talent of the masters was revealed even more during the Golden Horde. But the once prosperous school was destroyed in the 14th century by the Samarkand emir Timur after gaining independence from the Golden Horde. The once famous masters had to look for a haven in Maverannahr where they created beautiful architectural monuments while maintaining their unique style. But from the once picturesque city there were only lonely architectural structures, some remnants of the ancient fortified settlements of Guranj, Urgench and Kone Urgench, including a mosque, the gate of the caravanserai, fortresses, mausoleums and a minaret 60 meters high. Against the background of that was stood a sad picture of the desert with yellow sand and clay. During the travel around Kone Urgench that is situated in Turkmenistan, you can see that the masters of these architectural structures used a huge variety of techniques and decor of Islamic architecture in Central Asia.
If you travel here you will learn that as a result of archaeological excavations, the presence of the contours of a powerful ancient fortress, built on an earlier period in the 5-11th centuries BC, was revealed. This was at the time when the core of the city had a strong fortification. This is a confirmation of academician S.P. Tolstov that Urgench is mentioned in the Avesta as Urva.
Being at the crossroads of the Great Silk Road, the city became prosperous. The reign of Mamun was remembered for military events, long marches, complex political intrigues. But the heyday fell on the reign of Mamun ibn Mamun. It is this that is significant because it overshadowed the glory of Bukhara and became the center of scientists, where they developed a unique court "Academy" of Mamun.
It was the time of such brilliant people as the great encyclopedias Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni and the brilliant scientist, doctor and philosopher Abu Ah ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna. Unfortunately, this flowering did not last long due to the death of Mamun 11 in 1017, when Khorezm was conquered by Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi. After a quarter of a century, the Seljuks conquered all that had gas naids. Since 1044, Khorezm has become the only province of the Turkmen state, Great Seljuk.
The course of time has changed a lot and in 1097 a very significant event occurred, the beginning of the last Khorezmshah dynasty - the Anushteginid dynasty. Qutb ad-Din Mohammed I was appointed as the ruler of Khorezm. His reign lasted 30 years. The throne was occupied by his son Atsyz and his policy was an excessive burden of Khorezm, but he gradually conquered the entire northwestern part of Central Asia. And only his grandson, a smart ending, will destroy power in 1194 from the Seljuks.
Due to the inability to return to its former greatness, the best artists, architects, builders and artisans were forced to move to Samarkand. Of course, there were attempts to restore former greatness, but due to various factors, this could not be done. Because of the combination of these factors, only pathetic reminders of the former greatness of Gurgenge remained. And because of this, the ruins were called Old Urgench.
Due to the dugging channel Yab Khan, the city began to develop only outside the old city. From the banks of the canal appeared a small village which became the basis of the new city. And after a huge amount of time the city has a modern infrastructure. But at the same time, the government announced that the territory of Old Urgenchabyl will become a historical and cultural museum, whose architectural and archaeological monuments were included in the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2005. Turkmen experts, together with international experts, are constantly working here to study and preserve the unique architectural heritage of the city.